Transcendental Meditation Combating Diabetes in Indian Country

Mary Annette Pember
2/1/12

Transcendental Meditation (TM) has come a long way from its introduction in the United States in 1960s, when its most famous teacher-practitioner, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, was a pop icon hailed by celebrities such as the Beatles, Mia Farrow and others.

TM is practiced by sitting comfortably with the eyes closed for 15 to 20 minutes twice a day. The technique is based on a huge body of sacred texts that form the basis of Hinduism, knowledge handed down by Vedic masters from generation to generation for thousands of years. The Maharishi began teaching the technique in India in 1955. He founded the Spiritual Regeneration Movement Foundation in Los Angeles in 1959 that he later named the TM Program, the current organization that accredits teachers and oversees its network of TM classes. After training others to teach TM, he popularized it by embarking on the first of a series of world tours beginning in the early 1960s. Subsequent endorsements by celebrities helped gain popularity for the Maharishi and his technique. He said that he wanted to make TM “available to the average householder.” His ultimate goal was to bring peace to the world through TM.

Once viewed as primarily the pursuit of the rich and idle, TM is now being used to combat the high rates of type 2 diabetes among Native peoples. Ahmed Mohammed, medical director at the Winnebago Indian Hospital in Nebraska, estimates that up to 66 percent of the Winnebago served by the facility are either type 2 diabetic or pre-diabetic. He knows that the right diet and exercise can diminish diabetes symptoms but notes that stress is often the precipitating factor for those losing the battle with the disease. To change that, some tribal members began practicing TM.

Warner Earth of the Winnebago Tribe says that his blood glucose level would sometimes climb to over 500 mg/dL. (Doctors say that normal levels are between 70 and 120 mg/dL.) After practicing TM for several months, his blood glucose levels are normal. “I am sold on TM,” he says.

A 2006 study at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles found that people practicing TM experienced significantly lower blood pressure and improved blood glucose and insulin levels. The study, conducted by C. Noel Bairey Merz, director of the Women’s Heart Center, also found a strong correlation between stress and high blood glucose levels (which are a result of insulin resistance), a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. “I’ve seen studies showing that living on the rez is more stressful than living in a ghetto. In addition to drugs, alcohol and violence, we have the stress of tribal politics,” notes Prosper Waukon.

Waukon, a member of the Winnebago Tribe, was instrumental in bringing TM instructors to the reservation. He was introduced to TM while teaching a group of gifted students from the reservation back in 2004. The students were permitted to choose one culture-related class trip; they chose to travel to the Maharishi University of Management in Fairfield, Iowa—about 300 miles from Winnebago—that was founded by the Maharishi in 1974.

David Lynch

After speaking with students and teachers at the university, Waukon and his students requested instruction in TM. In November 2005, teachers from the TM Program came to the Winnebago Public Schools and instructed more than 100 administrators, teachers and students in the meditation technique. For the next five years, more than 300 students in grades eight to 12 learned the TM technique. According to Waukon, the school reported a 25 percent drop in absenteeism among those students who practiced meditation as well as improvement in their performance on standardized tests. Funding for the TM teachers was provided by the David Lynch Foundation, which was founded in 2005 by David Lynch, the director of such films as The Elephant Man, Wild at Heart, Twin Peaks: Fire Walk With Me and Blue Velvet.

The foundation is a nonprofit organization that funds TM classes for at-risk populations, including inner-city students, veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder and their families, homeless people and incarcerated juveniles and adults. Many TM practitioners and teachers believe meditation can reduce violence and improve learning among youth, so the foundation funds university and medical-school research to assess the effects of its TM Program on academic performance, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other learning disorders, anxiety, depression, substance abuse, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

However, after a study at the Winnebago Indian Hospital that included tribal elders, tribes have realized that the greatest need in Indian country for TM is among diabetics, according to Boncheff. During that study, Mohammed found that patients who meditated regularly showed an average drop in their hemoglobin A1c levels, which makes it easier for the body to combat diabetes. “Stress and tension increase insulin resistance so the body is unable to effectively use insulin,” Boncheff reports. This goes back to the study at Cedars-Sinai that found a correlation between stress and high glucose levels and insulin resistance.

Shortly after his first trip to the Maharishi University of Management, Waukon brought several elders to Fairfield to learn TM; the elders reported that in addition to lowering their blood glucose and blood pressure levels, they began to remember some of the traditional songs they had forgotten. “TM has helped them get in touch with the sacred again,” he says.

Waukon argues that getting in touch with the sacred is a key to healing Indian peoples, not only of diabetes but also of other ills that plague Natives. Substance abuse, violence and diabetes are symptoms that have resulted from the loss of contact with traditional spirituality, he notes.

Boncheff says, “TM helps the mind and body grow stronger by taking the mind deep within itself to make positive changes.” He adds that the goal of the TM Program is to bring this knowledge to the Indian community. “They are deciding where and how it should be used.”

According to Waukon and Boncheff, several tribes are inquiring about the possibility of bringing TM teachers to their communities. Their hope is to create a feeder organization that can bring TM to other reservations, and they are actively seeking funding to create such an entity. The David Lynch Foundation provides funding that underwrites the cost of teaching the TM Program to various underserved groups, but wants communities to choose the venue and circumstances under which classes are taught.

Currently about 50 people are regular practitioners of TM in the Winnebago community, including Earth. “I lost four family members to diabetes,” he says. “Both my parents had their legs amputated. I don’t want this to happen to my people. If TM will help us, I want it for them.”

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ashleydeans's picture
ashleydeans
Submitted by ashleydeans on
This is such great news. Finally a program with great benefits and no harmful side effects.

jtb456's picture
jtb456
Submitted by jtb456 on
A great article. This could be very useful in Indian Country.

maunka's picture
maunka
Submitted by maunka on
Hinikaragiwi (Greetings): What is not revealed in this article is the controversy within the Winnebago Tribe and Community surrounding this TM experiment. Personally, I am indifferent on this issue right now. There are many in Winnebago actually against TM and see TM as another attempt integrate someone else's belief system into their culture (i.e., Christianity)or just experimenting on us. I would agree that we are dealing with transgenerational trauma, which stems from the previous bad policy of "Civilizing/Christianizing" or "Kill The Indian Save the Man" U.S. policy. I would also agree the availability coping with this trauma in a healthy & sacred way is needed. I would propose attending sweat lodges as a connection to traditional culturay ways to cope. I attend sweats and they do help me in many ways. I too was diagnosed recently with type 2, last June 2011. My AIC is normal and it has nothing to do with TM. Rather, my diet & activity, medication, and mental goal to be alive for my future grandchildren. Additionally, the lower absent rates at Winnebago Public probably has more to do with the community push to flip the negative performance scores occuring at that school, which has required teachers, administrators, and community people to implement strategies to achieve better results. I have two children attending Winnebago Public and they are both straight A students. I can assure you TM has nothing to do with their high academic performance. Let's keep things clear in this discussion.

maunka's picture
maunka
Submitted by maunka on
I should add, bring my Type 2 diabetes under control and closer to reversing it is associated with becoming more educated about the causes of Type 2. The Ho-Chunk Hope Diabetes program and Winnebago Treay Hospital diabetes personnel have been instrumental in educating me and our community inflicted with this disease. I am a strong proponent of education and in this case, education has been a critical success factor in me recovering from Type 2. Moreover, using the blood sugar monitor has been one of the most empirical devices that helped me understand my blood sugar. I would recommend more diabetes education and Ho-Chunk Hope type programs to help combat Type 2. I am also a man of prayer which there is nothing wrong with praying. However, Transcendental Meditation has NOT been the contributing factor for me. Please make sure you provide all of the information.

mikedoughney's picture
mikedoughney
Submitted by mikedoughney on
The promotion of Transcendental Meditation to various potentially vulnerable and often historically disadvantaged communities (including youth, prisoners, those who've suffered trauma) should be controversial, and I've long suspected that such controversies exist but are seldom reported. Yes, from the point of view of the organization that teaches TM, it is indeed a belief system native to India, that holds that various practices involving the use of special sounds, such as the "mantra" in TM, will by some means considered laughable by science will somehow bring about world peace, and deliver uniformly positive benefits to whoever does those things. While TM's promoters attempt to use scientific research to back its introductory TM technique, the core doctrine held by insiders running the organization defies, and in some cases is openly contemptuous of, the scientific method and medical practice. The reality is that few people who start TM stick with it more than a few months if not a year or two; after initiating almost a million people in the U.S. in the 70's, today only a few tens of thousands of people express any interest at all in it. There are so few people talking about TM, that two of the TM-supportive commenters on this article are instantly recognizable to me! The touted benefits of TM, as you suggest, may well have nothing to do with TM, but come from simply paying more attention to, and taking care of, oneself; in fact, the often touted reduction in blood pressure is little better than that gained through health education, in most studies. All of this, and much more, is documented and discussed at the TM-Free blog, a group blog which I coordinate that takes a skeptical and critical view of TM claims, and documents the habits and actions of the all-male hierarchy, that dresses in royal crowns and robes, that runs the TM movement today. Google "tm-free blog" to find it.

daisy's picture
daisy
Submitted by daisy on
Anything that can help people reduce stress and make it easier to combat diabetes is good. If TM is helping people -- and the medical director would know -- then I'm glad to see this article.

tomball's picture
tomball
Submitted by tomball on
Thank you for this timely article. TM itself is a non-religious, secular practice with a track record of proven results--in the classroom and in daily life. There are many people in desperate need of the benefits that the practice delivers. Native Americans on reservations is one such group. As a teacher of TM, I have seen the life-changing effects in hundreds of my students over the years -- people of all religions or no religion. Instead of bringing some new belief system into their life, it powerfully reduces stress and brings greater clarity, comprehension and self reliance, and then people embrace whatever beliefs or worldview that is most natural to them. My mother was a regular, churchgoing Southern Baptist, but never missed her daily TM. The practice is no more "Indian" than gravity is jewish or German. It is based on universal laws governing mind and body. The process of "transcending" is natural to every human being, we just need a technique to allow the process to happen effortlessly and spontaneously.

tomball's picture
tomball
Submitted by tomball on
Maunka, Thanks for your thoughts on TM. I think there is wisdom in your neutral attitude. Controversy is useful and is part of the process of accruing knowledge -- as long as we "keep things clear." The more that people research TM and the more inquiry there is about it, the sooner the facts will be known. Because there is so much misinformation on the Internet about TM, I can see how one might not have a clear picture regarding the true nature of the practice -- it too often gets confused with what it is not. TM itself is clearly non-religious and secular, as evidenced by the fact that people of all religions practice it without conflict -- including Christian clergy, thousands of Buddhist monks, rabbis, etc. (All of this is discussed on the Blog at www.TM.org.) It's not a belief system, it's a technique (please see my comment above). But conflict is in the eye of the beholder. The current rise in popularity of TM is due, I believe, to the ease and effectiveness of the technique, its secular nature and the growing body of scientific research verifying the technique's benefits. Many studies have shown that TM improves student grades. Certainly, as evidenced by your own children, TM is not the only thing that can accomplish this. Fortunately, there is an extensive body of empirical validating the practice. This is why people like Dr. Mehmet Oz, NIH senior researcher Norman Rosenthal and so many others are speaking out for the technique and the research behind it. Critics can and will say anything -- whatever is in line with one's own world view. Thanks to the scientific method, it is not a matter of opinion whether or not TM works. Thanks for stating your position and for your openness to balanced discussion.

saijanai's picture
saijanai
Submitted by saijanai on
You have no credible resource to back up your statistics. TM has been practiced for 40 years by Clint Eastwood. He was willing to appear with Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in 1973 to say that he practiced, and he was willing to make a video to that effect last year. David Lynch has been practicing for 38 years. So have I. Without a carefully designed longitudinal study lasting 4 decades, it would be impossible to determine how many people are still practicing 40 years later, so any claims either way are merely speculation.

terry42's picture
terry42
Submitted by terry42 on
I having been meditating with TM for several years and it has been very helpful in reducing stress and improving health for me. There are many roads to health. Sometimes we have to use more than one approach. I like TM as a health promoter because it has grown my awareness of deep levels of mind and body. It is very enjoyable and brings a very nice, relaxed feeling that continues after meditation as well. During my TM course I was not told about anything to believe in, just how to meditate to get the best results for me. I recommend TM if someone feels inclined to experience meditation.

mikedoughney's picture
mikedoughney
Submitted by mikedoughney on
When someone brings up "credible sources" when it comes to Transcendental Meditation, something ridiculous is about to happen, like the irrelevant and habitual name-dropping of elderly movie stars by people like you who've been compulsively helping with the promotion of TM practice for decades. The fact is, that if you go out and look around in social media like Facebook, as I have (and documented at the TM-Free Blog), interest in TM is admitted by microscopic numbers of people relative to any major brand name. Claims of a "rise in popularity" cannot be supported by any survey of the media or online sources outside of those produced by the "Global Country of World Peace" (the ridiculous name the TM teaching organization gives itself, run by guys in royal gold crowns and robes) or the David Lynch Foundation (run by a guy with levitating hair). That isn't speculation, that's a reasonable conclusion based on what's readily available from public sources. As for the possibility of a "carefully designed longitudinal study" of the subject, the TM movement has no real interest in such, beyond the fact that some of their studies do admit to a significant dropout rate among new meditators that matches the experience of many, both meditators and former TM teachers. As a TM movement lawyer told me more than 30 years ago, they will participate in only those studies that will not "test something other than what they're supposed to test" (google the phrase, it's so outrageous, it's unique to that transcript), that is, they only work with studies that are designed to have a very low likelihood of showing TM in a negative or even indifferent light. That's not science, that's the unethical manipulation of researchers to produce the particular result, the rubber-stamping of an a priori religious conclusion dictated by the Vedic scriptures and doctrines at the core of the TM system. This is why the insistence that "TM itself is clearly non-religious" is not the point. The point is that TM promoters and teachers, at their core, are religiously motivated, and, along with having picked up all sorts of bad habits and gross misconceptions about the scientific method that have been central to the TM movement for decades, are thus no longer believable or trustworthy because they will never accept any characterization of TM as being less than "perfect." The word "perfect" was in fact recently used by TM promoter Sarina Grosswald to describe the practice at a Los Angeles press conference back in December, in reference to the selling of TM to veterans with PTSD; that's how they talk about TM. That's not science, that's religion.

mikedoughney's picture
mikedoughney
Submitted by mikedoughney on
Tom, thanks for providing this evening's entertainment. I say that because it's fascinating to watch, how the marketing of TM has had to shift as the inner, religious, Vedic, some-would-say-Hindu-but-that-would-just-irritate-you core of the TM movement has become impossible to deny, what with all the importation of Vedic pundits from India to Fairfield, Iowa to sit and chant Vedic scriptures all day long in hopes of bringing "Heaven on Earth" in all its theocratic glory down on our collective heads, and the peculiar interpretation of all things Vedic infects everything the TM movement does, down to the buildings it builds for itself (east-facing to within a fraction of a degree) or the centers it rents (how far off dead-center north facing IS your center's front door?). That it's run by an all-male hierarchy that wears gold crowns and royal robes in some bizarre simulation of a mythical Vedic theocratic kingdom as described in the Laws of Manu is also a small point of undeniable fact. They used to teach that everything about TM was irreligious; now comes the adjustment, in which you say, with my emphasis, "TM *itself* is... non-religious." Perhaps, in the generic sort of way that closing one's eyes, taking a nap, or thinking a few thoughts that you yourself think have no meaning is not religious. Then, there's everything else inseparable from TM, starting with the recitation of the "Holy Tradition" and the puja ceremony that everyone being taught officially-sanctioned TM must sit through, all of which are clearly based on (some subset of) the religious traditions of India. And then there's the Maharishi-brand products that follow after the merely introductory practice of TM, to enhance one's practice and experiences: TM-Sidhi "Yogic flying" (of which Vedic scripture recitation is a part), Vedic astrology (exactly what it says), Vedic jyotish (paying Vedic pundits (clergy) to perform rituals on one's behalf), and that's just a start. As with some other unsavory things, the first taste is free or cheap, and is completely unlike anything that comes afterward in both expense and lack of quality and effectiveness, a long, futile effort to bring back that first-time experience. Getting back to my previous theme. Given that your almost laughable amount of denial of the obvious cultural roots of TM suggests some level of obfuscation is inherent to your pitch, can TM promoters like Tom Ball, who've been teaching TM for decades, be trusted? Well, let's start with the obvious, that for decades until recently, the TM movement insisted that *everything* about TM was not religious, even while everyone in it knew all that time that the inner doctrine is entirely that of Vedic revivalism. In my opinion, that means that TM teachers worldwide have been lying for at least two decades, until the edict finally came down from world HQ that this little adjustment of the sales patter was finally necessary. If you obviously shouldn't have been trusted to be truthful about such little details over all that time, why should anyone believe you today when you fire up your little "TM is perfect" soundbite-machine? Let's also keep in mind that Tom is the creator of a website that he calls "Skeptics on TM." Tom is, of course, along with his wife Jeanne, a fulltime teacher of TM, and both appear to have key roles promoting TM online, independently, with the David Lynch Foundation, and through that cesspool of pseudoscience, The Huffington Post. The very concept of a "skeptics" website created by a hardcore devotee of the subject about which skepticism is claimed sort of boggles my mind, and from my point of view, is a poor attempt to undermine actual skeptics and critics like myself. His site is nothing more than a repackaging of the same propaganda the TM movement has pumped out for decades. If you have to be that disingenuous about what you're doing - posing as a "skeptic" when you are nothing of the sort, in fact, you're a paid flack - why should anyone believe you when you fire up your little "TM is perfect" soundbite-machine? I could go on, but this is enough for now. Clearly, as of this writing - with eleven comments on this thread by eight people - three comments are from two people paid to promote TM (Ashley and Tom), and a third has supported TM online, from Albuquerque, for almost twenty years now. Everybody else has long left this building, and to most people TM is some bizarre, irrelevant cultural relic of the mid-70's. But if you're a tribal leader or otherwise part of some small group targeted by the few remaining devotees for one of these TM sales pitches - or you lived through it and still wonder what it was all about - I suppose this stuff actually does matter, which is why I still from time to time write on this subject.

ppmickey's picture
ppmickey
Submitted by ppmickey on
Thank you David Lynch. I would like a refresher course in TM. Years ago when I lived next door to a drug pusher, my father paid to send me to a TM course. It was very helpful until a Christian friend said it was the work of the devil and I quit doing it. I now realize she was full of bolongna and wish to restart TM. It is one of the most helpful things I had ever done to lower my stress rate. I too have diabetes and find stress to be a large component, with past negative experiences influencing your health dramatically. You don't have to go to war to experience post traumatic stress disorder and having TM offered to diabetics and children in schools, along with other populations is a blessing and something I'm so happy to hear about. This is not a pagan type of thing like some "Christians" seem to think. It's a way of relaxing and getting in touch with your inner self and melting away the days stress that has accumulated. It is a vital part of the day for those wishing to have better health and a better state of mind. Thanks are in order to the David Lynch Foundation for all they are doing.

saijanai's picture
saijanai
Submitted by saijanai on
You are correct that TM organization-sponsored research is skewed. However, the TM organization collaborates with outside researchers and organizations who do NOT have an agenda to show that TM is "perfect" and people can evaluate what long-term effect TM has, including recidivism rates, by referring to the research conducted by outsiders. In the case of the David Lynch Foundation, there are school systems and Veterans groups (not to mention American Indian groups) which are doing their own monitoring of statistics, and it is on the basis of their OWN statistics that TM is becoming more in-demand. At best, the TM-sponsored research gets a foot in the door, but it is the home-grown results from organizations monitoring the results from using TM that is opening that door wider.

saijanai's picture
saijanai
Submitted by saijanai on
It goes both ways. When I posted on your forum something that was somewhat positive towards TM, someone else accused me of sounding like a TM shill. I, in turn, accused them of sounding like someone who had a knee-jerk reaction towards anyone who disagreed with them about TM. You then banned me for being impolite. I may be wrong about my impression of what happened, but did you ban the original poster? I got the impression that you did not, but only banned me.

mikedoughney's picture
mikedoughney
Submitted by mikedoughney on
"goes both ways" So what you're saying is that you see some sort of equivalence, or parallel, between the policies and practices of a nearly 50 year old global organization involving thousands worldwide, and whether or not I allow certain kinds of comments on an irregularly-updated blog run by 5 people. This is absurd. Just to make my comment somehow relevant to the readers... this is the kind of misdirection that is just what happens when inconvenient facts are raised in response to TM's promoters in various forums. I think this sort of thing also reinforces my original point, that the framework in which TM is promoted and taught is religious in nature. Any fact-based objection to TM is shouted down, not with another set of relevant facts, but with noise, kind of like responding to the paucity of research with the existence of a meditating Clint Eastwood, as you did above. Such discussions eventually devolve into a great deal of fantasy regarding the motivations of TM's critics, whether that be the occasional accusation that people like me are being paid off by "big pharma" or that we're just somehow seriously malajusted. Which brings me to your specific allegations regarding the withdrawal of your posting privileges on the blog I manage. You were removed because your comments began to take on this form, specifically by bringing up your fantasies about the motivations of the blog's founder, who's since left the field, as far as I know. As I thought I made quite clear in the entry that new commenters are encouraged to read, "A few words about comments," this is an unproductive, to disruptive, sort of line of comment that I actively discourage. Given your long history of online activity on this subject, with which I am quite familiar, I made a reasonable decision to withdraw your posting privileges. Again, this is just another way in which the whole TM milleu resembles a religion, in that critics, rather than being recognized as knowledgable and presenting an often-disregarded set of facts, are believed by many TM devotees to be somewhere between a bit misguided and downright evil, in a realm recognized as that of apostates or heretics in more familiar religions. It's a waste of time to engage with that line of thought any further, whether it's from you, your New Jersey online compatriot, or for that matter, David Lynch and Bob Roth, who've been featured doing exactly this in a full-length documentary, "David Wants to Fly."

rubybellanger001's picture
rubybellanger001
Submitted by rubybellanger001 on
Sorry, I do not like the article.

saijanai's picture
saijanai
Submitted by saijanai on
Here is my recollection of what happened: I inserted one of my speculations about the motivations of TM-founder Maharishi Mahesh Yogi into a thread. Basically, I pointed out that nearly 60 years ago, MMY's teacher was on a lecture tour and fell ill, reportedly with food poisoning. Two opposing views arose: that he should be kept where he was until he recovered or that he was strong enough to move on to his next speaking appointment and would recover on the way. MMY was then in charge of the day to day mundane affairs of the monastery and his view, that his teacher was strong enough to travel, prevailed. His teacher then died and many people blamed MMY for their teacher's death. I merely suggested that perhaps MMY's dedication of all of his actions and the actions of the TM organization to his teacher was based on his own, possibly unconscious, guilt and that perhaps he felt he needed to atone for depriving the world of his teacher so he became obsessed with spreading his interpretation of his teacher's teachings and attributing them to his "Guru Dev" at every opportunity. I said nothing about any other motivations that might also be involved. I merely speculated that he might have been feeling guilty because his decision might have led to his teacher's death. Someone responded that I sounded like a shill for the TM organization and I responded that they sounded like someone who had a knee-jerk reaction to anyone who didn't agree 100% with what they believed about the TM organization. At this point you banned me.

rubybellanger001's picture
rubybellanger001
Submitted by rubybellanger001 on
The article "Relax, Just Do It" is not a true accounting of TM on the Winnebago Reservation. Not mentioned was the secret mantra that is given to the people to chant while meditating, this was told to the students. Mr. Boncheff said in an open school board meeting"it does not mean anything". No mention of the TM banishment in 2010 by the Tribal Council. The Nebraska Department of Education District Report of School Performances showed low test scores, this report directly contradicts TM's claim of responsibility for improvement on standardized tests in the local school. There are more issues that are not in the article.To be fair,the opposition to TM should have been interviewed. Meditation can be a good thing, not Transcendental.

louise's picture
louise
Submitted by louise on
Great article - thank you for the background on TM and how it is being used to help folks. It is inspiring and very good news! I am a big fan of TM, my regular practice has been a very helpful tool to manage my stress levels and keep me healthy! Thank you again!

mikedoughney's picture
mikedoughney
Submitted by mikedoughney on
Fortunately, I seem to have misplaced my violin, it's one of the world's smallest. Replying here to saijanai's continued insistence upon flooding this thread with incessant babbling about an exchange he had some months ago in comments elsewhere would be rude, except to point out that there's plenty of anecdotal evidence to suggest a correlation between Transcendental Meditation practice and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Inability to know when to stop in situations like this, or to develop the habit of brevity and some social awareness of the (ir)relevance of one's chosen topic, seem to be some of the symptoms.

Noah's picture
Noah
Submitted by Noah on
Hello to every one, because I am really keen of reading this website's post to be updated on a regular basis. It includes good data.
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