This Presidents' Day, We Highlight the Best Presidents for Indian Country

Rob Capriccioso

This story was originally published on Presidents' Day 2012.

It’s not easy drawing up a list of the best American presidents on Indian issues when it is the very government that these presidents have led that has committed so many injustices toward the Native population. Still, some presidents have gone against the fray, sometimes in surprising ways, leading on Indian issues when they could have ignored them. These are our nods on this Presidents' Day 2012:

Richard Nixon (Copyright Bettmann/Corbis / AP Images)

Richard M. Nixon: He’s the president who’s not usually on anyone’s best list, but for Indian country, he was a champion. Changing course on many of the policies that had driven so many Indians into bleak poverty, Nixon, with the guidance of his Mohawk Indian affairs leader Louis R. Bruce, endorsed a self-determination plan for tribes, ushering in a new era for Natives. “Self-determination. … without the threat of eventual termination,” is how he described the plan to Congress, asking them to repeal the 1953 House Concurrent Resolution which had endorsed Native integration. He effectively ended the policy of forced termination, encouraged the growth of tribal governments, and pledged to honor the federal government’s obligations to tribes. Soon, many laws passed Congress building on Nixon’s plan, chief among them the 1975 Indian Self-Determination and Educational Assistance Act—a major beacon of change that saw tribes begin to be in charge of their own economies. By the time that act became law, Nixon had resigned in disgrace for the bad deeds he had committed while in office. Indians, meanwhile, had a different reason to remember him.

Barack Obama (AP Photo/Obama Transition Office, Pete Sou)

Barack Obama: It’s taken this “One Who Helps People Throughout the Land” – his adopted Crow name – just three years to show that he’s seriously committed to taking action on Indian issues, brokering passage of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act reauthorization, the Tribal Law and Order Act, and the $3.4 billion Cobell settlement. He’s institutionalized an annual White House Tribal Nations summit, while hiring several Indians to posts throughout his administration. One niggling detail casts a shadow on all the good deeds he’s done: Indians continue to wait for a bold Obama plan that will not just atone for the sins of the past, but will help usher in the next bright era. If he is willing to institutionalize some real federal change on Indian policy, the shadow will lift.

Franklin D. Roosevelt (Copyright Bettmann/Corbis / AP Images)

Franklin D. Roosevelt: His New Deal will never be forgotten. For Natives, it included the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, which ended the sale of tribal lands and restored ownership of unallocated lands to Native American groups. The policy helped reverse the Dawes Act’s infamous privatization of communal holdings of tribes, while returning to tribal self-governance. Congress ultimately altered the original intention of the policy by reducing elements of tribal self-governance and preserving federal Bureau of Indian Affairs oversight, which has led to many of the bureaucratic problems involving Indians land, royalties, and power that exist today.

Bill Clinton (Copyright Bettmann/Corbis / AP Images)

Bill Clinton: He set a model for Obama, hiring Natives to work in his administration, and holding meetings with tribal leaders at the White House—both areas that the current president has taken the ball and run with. And he made some memorable commitments. His executive order on tribal consultation was a major move toward strengthening the government-to-government relationship that was supposed to always be there between the U.S. and tribal nations. His apology to Native Hawaiians showed his willingness to admit what was wrong, not worrying whether this might make him look weak. On the contrary, it made him look strong. Many Indians of the 49 other states continue to wait for their own apology from another strong president.

General Ulysses S. Grant in Uniform (Copyright Bettmann/Corbis / AP Images)

Ulysses S. Grant: This blast from the presidential past reminds us that good intentions were sometimes present in American history toward Indians—but that good federal intentions were and are not always the best for tribal interests. In his first inaugural address, Grant called Indians “the original occupants of this land” – few leaders were giving them that credit at the time – and he said that he was committed to rethinking the country’s horrid treatment of them. Under his Peace Policy, he wanted to achieve the ultimate Kumbaya moment by moving Indians closer to white civilization by housing them on reservations and encouraging them to farm. In hindsight, all this relocation was not only bad policy, it was bad for the Indian body and soul. Still, Grant remains interesting because he tried something other than conquering—which can’t be said of many of his historical peers. Worth noting: George H.W. Bush: When he signed the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act into law in 1990, it was a pretty progressive move, especially when compared to his son who would later leave most things Indian alone. He also designated the first national Native American heritage month, and proclaimed 1992 the “Year of the American Indian.” It has since come to light that when he served as United Nations ambassador before becoming POTUS, he encouraged the spending of U.S. money to sterilize low-income women, including some Native Americans. John F. Kennedy: JFK and his brothers, Bobby and Teddy, are remembered fondly by many Natives due to their push for Indian education initiatives, as well as Bobby’s campaign visit to Pine Ridge Reservation in 1968 just before his assassination. Kennedy’s brothers were really the ones making waves, but he tends to get lumped in with them as having been a supporter. Jimmy Carter: He signed the American Indian Religious Freedom Act into law in 1979, saying, “It is a fundamental right of every American, as guaranteed by the first amendment of the Constitution, to worship as he or she pleases.” The law has led to greater support for and awareness of sacred site protection.

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ppmickey's picture
Submitted by ppmickey on
How refreshing to hear that there have been Native American friendly presidents over the years. It's too bad there aren't more men in politics and more presidents that have been as Native American friendly as these presidents have been.

tmsyr11's picture
Submitted by tmsyr11 on
Oh PLEEZ, with the amount of casino dollars this man - Barack Obama is getting, he should be doing MORE for Indian country! Signing off on legislation that can easily be brokered and written off in future is worth about as much as his 'lip-service' to indian federal funding whereas the US Govt. doesn't have the money. Who is going to pay for the Federal funding to legitiate Indian tribes? Bill Clinton failed to broker settlement to the Cobbell lawsuit , where instead he punted the ball to the next administration. FDR implemented US Government services that was only supposed to temporarily get Americans back on their feet. But instead, we've seen and encountered US Govt. intervention (short of social welfare) into the lives of most americans. I agree with most on list, but would certainly take Barack Obama off the list as well as Jimmy Carter (Indian Religious 'rights' didn't mean anything in the San Francisco lawsuit against the US Forest Service). George HW Bush signed off on the Indian Gaming Act of 1988 which in turn allows rich Indian Tribal Nations to write off millions into Democratic national committee coffers. Thanks GHW Bush!

Ron Andrade's picture
Ron Andrade
Submitted by Ron Andrade on
I agree with the comment that Obama shouldn't come close to being on your list except for those who are still kissing his ring. Let's see what he does on the Keystone pipeline before he is praised. The Tribal Law and Order Act was due to the work of Bryon Dorgan. We still don't know the final effect of the Affordable Care Act. Why don't you admit that not one of the Presidents belong on any "A" list.

  Wa`kpa Lai`n,Yan,Ke 's picture
Wa`kpa Lai`n,...
Submitted by Wa`kpa Lai`n,... on
I agree there has been a few good Presidents in our time . But good is not good enough ,when you have a President who hids behind Congress and has not yet proved his citiesnship to any of the American People . And yet he holds a King's position , and never has to pay for anything the rest of his life along with a big fat income for the rest of his life . Who has done more damage to this county than any orther Presdent in past . When he speaks nothing comes out but air. His words mean nothing . He dosen't even honor our Lord Juses Christ ,in or out side the White House . He is who he is , and what he stands for is not what a lot of people think in these Unite States .

bullbear's picture
Submitted by bullbear on
At a quick glance, most of the U.S. presidents only put their stamps of approval on legislation that were sickly and loathsome attempts to right the wrong of the government's long-standing mistreatment of all Native Americans. On the other hand, President Nixon actively worked on behalf of the tribal nations and saw through the passage of Indian Self Determination that put the future of each tribe in their own hands as opposed to merely proclaiming Indian heritage month or signing-off on the Cobell settlement which was essentially distributing long overdue compensation. BTW/ what's the latest on Hillary Clinton's run for president?