40 Years Later: Boldt Decision Celebrations With Some Caution
Outside forces tried to “destroy us, take away our culture, our language, take away our ability to just do basic things, like hunt and fish,” she said.
“But that spirit that lies in all of us, that spirit of strength, when those battles seem to create a world and environment where it seems like we are losing the battle, those embers fan in our cultures we see today. Whether it’s Tribal Journeys or our language restoration programs, we see us going back to our roots and who we are as the Creator intended.”
Virginia Riedinger, Judge Boldt’s daughter, said her father took U.S. vs. Washington “with no prejudice one way or the other,” but by the time of his ruling, “I remember him saying the Indian had been cheated.” Even when her father was hanged or burned in effigy and the state defied his ruling, “He was never angry or indicated he was upset. He felt he made the right decision. And he had no problem enforcing it.”
Western Washington Treaties
Treaties signed by the U.S. and indigenous nations of what is now Western Washington: The Treaty of Medicine Creek, December 26, 1854; Treaty of Point Elliott, January 22, 1855; Treaty of Point No Point, January 26, 1855; Treaty of Neah Bay, January 31, 1855; Treaty of Olympia, July 1, 1855 and January 25, 1856. The treaties made land available for non-Native settlement; indigenous signers reserved land and certain rights for themselves and their descendants, and the U.S. agreed to pay with annuities, the provision of education and health care, and other considerations.
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