Alyson Courtemanch
A bighorn sheep lamb looks out from a cliff face in the Tetons, where an isolated non-migratory lives year-round.

Bighorn Sheep Survive Migration Loss, Now Pressed by Skiers

Gregory Nickerson, Wyofile
8/4/14

A recent study of an isolated bighorn sheep herd in Wyoming’s Teton Range has revealed new insights on how ungulates cope with the loss of migration routes, and how backcountry recreation encroaches on their remaining habitat.

Aly Courtemanch gives a GPS collar to the pilot for Leading Edge Aviation during the 2008 effort to capture and collar 28 bighorn sheep in the southern segment of the Teton herd. (Photo: Mark Gocke/Wyoming Game & Fish Department)

The bighorn sheep population in the Tetons stands at roughly 125, as it has since the 1980s. While biologists say the herd is in no immediate threat of a devastating die-off, the small numbers raise concerns about the herd’s long-term viability.

The new information gives wildlife managers a better understanding of the adaptive abilities of bighorn sheep. It will also inform future discussions of whether to enlarge current winter closures that prevent skier incursions into remaining sheep habitat.

Wyoming Game & Fish Department (WGFD) biologist Alyson Courtemanch completed the GPS collar study during her graduate research at the University of Wyoming. Her research documents how the Teton herd of bighorn sheep has evolved a unique strategy of wintering at extremely high elevations — above 10,000 feet. Rather than drop down with the first snows each autumn, as other bighorn sheep herds do, the sheep climb higher.

A helicopter flies up to into the Tetons to capture bighorn sheep on their winter range. (Photo: Mark Gocke/WGFD)

The bighorn sheep survive the harsh months of December through March by seeking out patches of rocky, windblown ground high in the Tetons, when skiers at nearby Jackson Hole Mountain Resort frolic in the 500 inches of snow that fall each winter.

As skiers cut runs and eat burgers at the Couloir Restaurant, the sheep eke out a living by grazing meager sprigs of grass and even pine needles, burning off their fat stores and, importantly, avoiding the deep powder the Tetons are known for.

However, the Teton snows and the increasing popularity of backcountry snow sports have conspired to force the bighorn sheep off much of the winter habitat that would otherwise be available to them. GPS data collected by Courtemanch during winters 2008 through 2010 suggests that skiers in high alpine areas cause bighorns to avoid choice habitat, and stay more active, which uses up their energy reserves. Even one skier a week can be enough to drive the sheep off choice locations and onto less ideal habitat.

Wes Livingston, mugger with Leading Edge Aviation, fastens a GPS collar to a blindfolded bighorn ewe. In total, the study collared 28 ewes in 2008 and 2009, and recorded their positions every five hours until July 2010. (Mark Gocke/WGFD)

To those used to seeing bighorn sheep grazing along hiking trails or on the roadside, such skittishness from skiers seems unusual. Courtemanch and others explain that sheep can habituate to predictable movements of people and cars. After being captured by helicopter crews, released sheep may run just 30 meters away before stopping to graze while keeping an eye on the humans.

However, the high speed and unpredictable routes of descending skiers often triggers a strong flight response among wintering sheep, perhaps by resembling a predator attack. If a group of skiers crests a ridge and drops into the viewshed of wintering sheep, the herd is likely to avoid the area entirely.

That puts increasing pressure on this isolated herd perched high in the crown of the Tetons, in the last refuge it can find.

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