Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.
This illustration shows a Thanksgiving Day celebration at Plymouth Colony with a “Hot Dog” vendor in the foreground, a “Pink Firewater” booth on the upper left, where the Natives have congregated, and a large group of Pilgrims entering a stockade for a football game, “Ye Indians versus Ye Pilgrims”, which is about to begin.

6 Thanksgiving Myths, Share Them With Someone You Know

Vincent Schilling
11/28/13

Considering ICTMN has published its fair share of the true history of Thanksgiving, in which 90 Wampanoag shared provisions with the Pilgrims in 1621, we thought we would take a bit of time delving into some of the most common misconceptions about the November holiday, especially since many Americans think it’s the only thing happening in November.

RELATED: Video: Man on the Street—Do You Know What November Is?

Native Americans and the Pilgrims Were “Besties”

The above statement is straight from the mouth of a fifth-grader at Long Elementary School in Ohio, who stated the Indians (Wampanoag) and Pilgrims were not “besties” or best friends. True to this statement, the pilgrims in Massachusetts were far from friendly. Soon after arriving in Plymouth, Massachusetts, Pilgrims went into Indians’ dwellings and cornfields and took whatever they wanted leaving beads behind. But that isn’t the picture that is painted by many accounts of the first Thanksgiving.

According to one colonist’s account in Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong by James Loewen: “The next morning we found a place like a grave. We decided to dig it up. We found first a mat, and under that a fine bow… We also found bowls, trays, dishes, and things like that. We took several of the prettiest things to carry away with us, and covered the body up again.”

The Pilgrims settled in an area that was once Patuxet, a Wampanoag village, but it had been abandoned four years prior because of a deadly outbreak of a plague brought by European traders. Before 1616, the Wampanoag numbered 50,000 to 100,000, occupying 69 villages scattered throughout southeastern Massachusetts and eastern Rhode Island. The plague, however, killed thousands, up to two-thirds, of them. Many also had been captured and sold as slaves.

This is a popular image of the first Thanksgiving, a painting by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris. But this is definitely NOT what happened.

Native Americans and Pilgrims Came Together to Give Thanks and Celebrate

In 1621, when the Pilgrims were celebrating a successful harvest, they were shooting guns and cannons into the air. The Wampanoag chief and 90 warriors made their way to the settlement in full warrior mode—in response to the gunfire. As the Huffington Post’s Richard Schiffman puts it, “It remains an open question, however, whether the Wampanoag were actually invited, or if they crashed the party.”

The Pilgrims were most likely nervous—the Wampanoag outnumbered the Pilgrims two to one, but it certainly wasn’t the happy picture put forth in many history books. According to Mashpee Wampanoag Tribal Historic Preservation Officer Ramona Peters, “It was Abraham Lincoln who used the theme of Pilgrims and Indians eating happily together. He was trying to calm things down during the Civil War when people were divided. It was like a nice unity story.”

RELATED: The Wampanoag Side of the First Thanksgiving Story

They Ate Turkey, Sweet Potatoes and Cranberry Sauce at the First Thanksgiving

According to many historical accounts, there is no proof of turkey gobbling at the 1621 meal, but there was wild fowl (most likely geese or duck). Sweet potatoes were not yet grown in North American and cranberries are not a likely dessert food because sugar was an unaffordable luxury. Other items on the table included such things as venison, pumpkin, succotash and Indian corn.

A typical Thanksgiving dinner today includes turkey, cranberry sauce and sweet potatoes. (Thinkstock)

RELATED: 1621: The Original Surf & Turf Meal

Europeans Appreciated Squanto’s Help

Many have heard the story of the friendly Indian Squanto who learned English from fishermen and later taught the Pilgrims how to plant corn and other vegetables. But what many history books don’t share is that Squanto was kidnapped as a boy and sold into slavery in Spain. After several years, Squanto struggled to get back to Cape Cod.

When he returned to his village, he discovered he was the only member of his tribe that remained—the rest were either killed in battle or died of disease during his absence.

Another myth here would be to note that Squanto did not learn English solely to help the colonists—it was a necessity to facilitate his escape so he could return home.

This 1911 illustration shows Squanto or Tisquantum teaching the Plymouth colonists to plant corn with fish. (Bricker, Garland Armor. The Teaching of Agriculture in the High School. New York: Macmillan, 1911/Wikimedia Commons)

Pilgrims Taught Indians About Thanksgiving

The Pilgrims did not introduce the sentiment of Thanksgiving to the Indians. According to Loewen, “Thanksgiving is full of embarrassing facts. The Pilgrims did not introduce the Native Americans to the tradition; Eastern Indians had observed autumnal harvest celebrations for centuries. Our modern celebrations date back only to 1863; not until the 1890s did the Pilgrims get included in the tradition; no one even called them ‘Pilgrims’ until the 1870s.”

The Thanksgiving Day Celebration Originated From a Massacre

In 1621, though the Pilgrims celebrated a feast, it was not repeated in the years to follow. In 1636, a murdered white man was found in his boat and the Pequot were blamed. In retaliation settlers burned Pequot villages.

Additionally, English Major John Mason rallied his troops to further burn Pequot wigwams and then attacked and killed hundreds more men, women and children. According to Mason’s reports of the massacre, “We must burn them! Such a dreadful terror let the Almighty fall upon their spirits that they would flee from us and run into the very flames. Thus did the Lord judge the heathen, filling the place with dead bodies.”

The Governor of Plymouth William Bradford wrote: “Those that escaped the fire were slain with the sword; some hewed to pieces, others run through with their rapiers, so that they were quickly dispatched and very few escaped. It was conceived they thus destroyed about 400 at this time. It was a fearful sight to see them thus frying in the fire...horrible was the stink and scent thereof, but the victory seemed a sweet sacrifice, and they gave the prayers thereof to God, who had wrought so wonderfully for them.”

The day after the massacre, the Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, William B. Newell, wrote that from that day forth shall be a day of celebration and thanks giving for subduing the Pequots and “For the next 100 years, every Thanksgiving Day ordained by a Governor was in honor of the bloody victory, thanking God that the battle had been won.”

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Terrilyn's picture
Terrilyn
Submitted by Terrilyn on
The history books, very much like Hollywood are fictional to say the least when it comes to people of color. They act as if they are the only ones in the world. Shame on them.

Kurt Van Tassel's picture
Kurt Van Tassel
Submitted by Kurt Van Tassel on
The white man has always spoken with a forked tongue.

Debbie 's picture
Debbie
Submitted by Debbie on
The thought and action from a Lord Mayor, to kill in cold blood, the native americans, who did, in fact begin the practice of Thanksgiving harvest, makes me ill. After Lord Mayors wishes were carried out, then the white men celebrated the deaths of those they killed. Thank you to the people who publish the truth.

john's picture
john
Submitted by john on
Sure would like to see some sources, as some of this post seems to be subjective. Thanks.

john's picture
john
Submitted by john on
Sure would like to see some sources, as some of this post seems to be subjective. Thanks.

Toni B.'s picture
Toni B.
Submitted by Toni B. on
THis is not new to me. I have found that alot of the "thanksgiving" stories rather one sided, and make the poor pilgrims seem like the victims. I find that the whole mess of the colonists coming here rather stomach turning because of the "Evil Heathens" who were here and raped and pilaged their women! I'm of Cherokee, Blackfoot, German and Dutch decent so you probably think I'm shunning my German and Dutch heritage, I guess you are correct to a point. I can understand and see the CRAP the Native Americans have been through and feel grief stricken by it, it's all the same as the genocide the Nazi plague put Europe through. I feel closer to the Cherokee and Blackfoot because they are where my whole heart lies.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous
Submitted by Anonymous on
Some Truth BUT A lot OF BULLSHIT , Russel Peters I would have believed.. There were only 56 Pilgrims left.

rey nichols's picture
rey nichols
Submitted by rey nichols on
I so hope that some of us Americans can realize what was done to your people, If anyone deseves payback it is All Native american Indians!!!!!

Sheryl M's picture
Sheryl M
Submitted by Sheryl M on
The majority of what has been written in the history books is like a fairy tale: straight b/s! It amazes me that people still want to believe these crazy tales when the fact that millions of natives were killed by disease/ war & forced on reservations shows the gratitude the white settlers had for the native people. Most native tribes have harvest festivals so it would make sense that the idea came from the natives since it was something done long before the arrival of the white settlers.

CELINA COLE's picture
CELINA COLE
Submitted by CELINA COLE on
THANK YOU.

Amy's picture
Amy
Submitted by Amy on
OMG! How could anyone with any kind of soul or spirit murder without a thought and then put it on our calendars as a holiday. They slaughtered and burned human beings. Human beings that God so proudly created and blessed all ALL MAN, who he created equal by creating such a beautiful place to live. Only for White Man to destroy! But, one day soon all will be well with our earth again, when God returns. And passes judgement on those murders of man women and children. Thank you so much for publishing the truth about the lies that I was brainwashed with. I always had a feeling that things in our history books were not what they appeared to be. Once more, Please find it in your heart to forgive any of these monsters who's blood I may carry in my veins. If I had been born then, I would have done my best to destroy these fiends blood or no blood.....
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