Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.
This image shows a Native woman from the Plains region carrying a baby on her back.

Why Native Americans Are Concerned About Potential Exploitation of Their DNA

Arvind Suresh

Until the advent of genetic genealogy, knowing your ancestry meant combing through old records, decoding the meaning of family heirlooms and listening to your parents and grandparents tell you about the “good old days.” For anthropologists and archaeologists interested in going back even further in time, the only reliable means of understanding human history were trying to interpret ruins or remnants of skeletons or other information uncovered at the site of remains.

DNA testing has changed all that, allowing us to delve far deeper into our past than before and with a much higher degree of accuracy. Although there are many issues stirred by DNA testing, none is more provocative than interpreting our family and tribal ancestries.

Nowhere is this more apparent than among the Native American tribes in the United States. I recently wrote about a large-scale genetic analysis among the American population by personal genetics and genealogy company 23andMe, using its extensive database to begin to decipher the ancestral origins of various ethnic groups in the United States.

Though the study involved more than 160,000 people, less than less than one percent of those who participated self-identified as Native American. Rose Eveleth, a journalist writing for The Atlantic suggests that this lack of participation may have a lot to do with how Native tribes perceive genetic testing:

But when it comes to Native Americans, the question of genetic testing, and particularly genetic testing to determine ancestral origins, is controversial. […] Researchers and ethicists are still figuring how to balance scientific goals with the need to respect individual and cultural privacy. And for Native Americans, the question of how to do that, like nearly everything, is bound up in a long history of racism and colonialism.

[…] for Native Americans, who have witnessed their artifacts, remains, and land taken away, shared, and discussed among academics for centuries, concerns about genetic appropriation carry ominous reminders about the past.

Eveleth references the widely publicized case where the Havasupai Tribe living near the Grand Canyon sued an Arizona State University scientist for using genetic samples collected from the tribe to conduct research outside of the purpose of the original study. The crux of the issue was the consent form, which covered a broad range of uses for the samples—a fact that the tribes claimed was not explained to them appropriately.

Although the tribe won the case, reclaimed the samples and settled with the university for $700,000, the issue captured the front page of the New York Times and put “every tribe in the US on notice regarding genetics research” as Native American tribal research ethics expert Ron Whitener quoted in an article titled “After Havasupai Litigation, Native Americans Wary of Genetic Research” published in the American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A.

Around the same time that the genetics of the Havasupai were being studied, another high profile issue bought Native American tribes in conflict with researchers. The Kennewick Man, an approximately 9,000-year-old skeleton was discovered by accident in 1994 in Kennewick, Washington. The Umatilla Tribe, who were indigenous to the region, sought to reclaim the remains under the 1990 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act to bury it in accordance with traditions. Anthropology researchers who wanted to study the skeleton however, argued there wasn’t enough evidence to convincingly show that the remains were Native American and therefore should not be returned. This resulted in a widely publicized eight-year-long legal dispute between scientists and the government that ended in 2004 with the court ruling in favor of the archaeologists, a decision that the tribes were expectedly unhappy with.

Now, the issue has come under the spotlight once again with the Seattle Times reporting last month that preliminary DNA analyses indicated that the Kennewick Man was indeed of Native American ancestry.

RELATED: The Long Legal and Moral Battle Over Kennewick Man

This piece originally appeared on February 2 at the Genetic Literacy Project. Read the rest of the article here.

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birdman's picture
Submitted by birdman on
Genealogy can be very hard for many Native Americans as there were very few written records kept. DNA would allow for many to make connections to the past.

Hidden Wolf's picture
Hidden Wolf
Submitted by Hidden Wolf on
I have searched for so long and found so many fragment's of my families history until I am almost to the point of not wanting to know who all my ancestors are. From what I have found it resembles a map of the Trail of Tears from the Seneca, Cree, Seminole, Creek, Mojave and God knows who else. The percentage is very high for Native blood and I would like to know more about all of the tribes that run through my veins but out of honor for them I won't take the DNA test unless invited. I don't want to step on my possible kin's toe's and insult them with the old story of my parent's told me I was part Native or NDN. I know I am I have visited my kin that live with the Cherokee and I have always been treated differently in school as far as being called that wild little Indian by teachers. It was a confusing childhood and at times an even more confusing adulthood. If my wife dies before I do I want to return to the western lands and desserts.being an astronomer I look forward to clear skies or as they say dark skies where the core of the galaxy can still be seen with the naked eye. I may not have had such a happy life but maybe I can have a happy death one day.

rockymissouri's picture
Submitted by rockymissouri on
It would be nice to know the location, if possible..but it's not necessary, since I already pay my respect to them. Don't people like me matter, too...? My ancestors who chose to conceal that info. probably never realized that they would have family members who would want to HONOR those ancestors...

sweetgrass777's picture
Submitted by sweetgrass777 on
DNA testing is like a double edge sword. It can solve answers about Ethnic Identity and ties and a persons actual origins. I can help restore and vindicate the true lineage of some who Europeans and colonization have wiped away and decimated. It can be tampered with for misuse as well. So I say it is helpful for Native people but they must be careful and educated themselves on how it is used and what it is used for simply put. Thank you.

Thundereagle's picture
Submitted by Thundereagle on
This is a subject That is near and dear to my heart. Many of us who do have blood but to not show the features of natives are laughed at. I have Cherokee and DNA will help me finally have the lies stop. Mine was hidden like many. In fact I had a GG Grandfather who was heard to say that if he could find the vein carrying the Indian blood he would have ripped it out. He was made to be ashamed of his heritage. That in turn has made it hard for us to be able to reclaim our heritage. I am opposite of my GG Grandfather. I want to rip out the white blood in me as I am being forced to be white when in fact I am native. I am proud of that fact. If my DNA will back me up I can live with it. There are some natives who cannot appreciate what they have. Remember there are some of us who genuinely want our heritage back. To finally have a heritage to be proud of.

Submitted by thematt2243 on
I'm Indian, and have the CDIB card to prove it! lol. I'm also a voting member of the Chickasaw tribe. My paternal grandmother was full blood Chickasaw. My maternal grandmother was full blood Cherokee as well, but I only associate myself with the Chickasaw. I think the DNA testing is fantastic! Now that we have the genome for early hominids, these tests could truly shed some light on human origin. Plus, there is little ambiguity regarding those who claim Indian heritage. I think a lot of resistance is from those who have a romanticized vision, both positive and negative of what it is like, or means to be of a certain tribe. And, knowing fully how much "Indian" blood is accurately in their veins, may push them away from any discussion. I'm not afraid though, so If anyone wants to test my dna, I'm available. I will not pay for it though. In the meantime, I've got a couple of cards, one from the Feds, and one from my tribal government that tells me.