Red Cloud Peace Pipe LOC
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.
Red Cloud, an Oglala Lakota war leader and chief, is seen here holding a pipe.

Red Cloud: A Life in Images

ICTMN Staff
6/29/15

Born in 1822, Red Cloud was an Oglala Lakota war leader, chief and worthy opponent against the United States Army. He led the successful campaign known as Red Cloud’s War (1866-1868) over control of Powder River Country in northeast Wyoming and southern Montana.

He scared encroachers off the Bozeman Trail and signed the Fort Laramie Treaty in 1868, mandating the United States allow the Lakota to keep the western half of South Dakota, including the Black Hills. He died in 1909 at the age of 87.

This 1875 image shows Red Cloud with Red Bear, Young Man Afraid of his Horse, Good Voice, Ring Thunder, Iron Crow, White Tail, Young Spotted Tail.  Pictured seating are Yellow Bear, Red Cloud, Big Road, Little Wound, and Black Crow. After General George Custer led men into Sioux territory in search of gold in 1874, the threat of violence grew. Lakota delegations headed to Washington, D.C. in 1875 to try and persuade President Grant to honor existing treaties, and stop the miners from pouring into their sacred lands. (Library of Congress)

Red Cloud or Scarlet-Cloud aka Makhpiya-luta-or-Ma-kpe-ah-lou-tah_Oglala Sioux is seen here in 1880. (FirstPeople.us)

This image of Red Cloud was taken in the 1880s, but a specific date was not listed. (David Frances Barry)

Red Cloud is seen here in 1890. (FirstPeople.us)

Red Cloud is seen in this color lithograph poster from Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show. It’s most likely from his time in the 1897 show. (codystudies.org/McCracken Library/Buffalo Bill Historical Center)

An 1897 studio group portrait of American Horse and Red Cloud, both chiefs, and Johnny Baker, adopted son of Buffalo Bill and performer in his Wild West Shows. (David F. Barry/Denver Public library Digital Collections)

Chief Red Cloud at age 77. (Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.)

Chief Red Cloud is seen here wearing a suit. (Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.)

Red Cloud led his warriors in Red Cloud’s War. (Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.)

Red Cloud is seen here with three generations. (Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.)

Red Cloud is seen here in 1903. He was blind by this time. (Illustration from The Indian Dispossessed by Seth K. Humphrey, 1906/via Wikipedia)

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